Hungary

   State founded in the late ninth century by the Magyars, a Finno-Ungric people from the steppe (q.v.). After the Pechenegs (q.v.) drove them beyond the Danube (q.v.), the Magyars settled in Pannonia (q.v.) under their prince Arpad. They quickly became allies of Byzantium (q.v.) in its war (894-896) with Bulgarian Tsar Symeon (qq.v.). The successors of Arpad expanded westward until stopped by Otto I (q.v.) at the battle of Lechfeld in 955. Byzantine missionaries arrived in Hungary in 953, but their influence declined radically when King Stephen (1001-1038) allied Hungary with western Catholicism. Nevertheless, Byzantine-Hungarian diplomatic relations continued to be active, especially after the betrothal of Manuel I's daughter Maria to Bela III (qq.v.), who gained the throne of Hungary with Byzantine help. Ottoman (q.v.) expansion into the Balkan Peninsula (q.v.) led to Byzantine pleas for military assistance. However, the Hungarians were preoccupied defending their own borders, and such help as Janos Hunyadi (q.v.) could offer ended in defeat at Varna (q.v.) in 1444.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

Look at other dictionaries:

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